Archive

Author Archive

Aplikasi Non-Medis OC Tomography untuk Pemurnian Air Minum dipresentasikan di Singapura

August 21st, 2015 No comments

http://prasetya.ub.ac.id/berita/Aplikasi-Non-Medis-OC-Tomography-untuk-Pemurnian-Air-Minum-17157-id.html

Yusuf Wibisono, STP, MSc, PhD, dosen Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya (FTP-UB) mempresentasikan penelitian aplikasi non-medis OCT di ajang 2nd International Conference on Desalination Using Membrane Technology. Kegiatan ini dilangsungkan di Singapura selama empat hari (26-29/7/2015). Makalah penelitian yang dipresentasikannya secara oral berjudul “Mesoscale in-situ Inspection Using Optical Coherence Tomography During Two-Phase Flow Cleaning for Biofouling Removal in Spiral-Wound Membrane Elements”. Selain itu, ia juga mempresentasikan poster berjudul “Two-phase flow for fouling control in membranes”.

Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) adalah teknologi pemindaian yang memanfaatkan cahaya berbasis low-coherence interferometry untuk menangkap gambar 3-dimensi dari sebuah obyek, yang umumnya berukuran mikrometer. Teknologi OCT sudah banyak digunakan di dunia medis khususnya untuk diagnostic di bidang ophthalmologyoptometryneurology, gynecology, gastroenterology, oncology, cardiology dan dermatology. Namun di tangan Yusuf Wibisono, teknologi ini dimanfaatkan untuk aplikasi di bidang non-medis, yaitu untuk mitigasi terbentuknya biofilm di dalam modul membran yang dimanfaatkan untuk pengolahan air minum.

Teknologi OCT ini bisa dipakai untuk deteksi pertumbuhan biofilm di dalam modul membran nanofiltrasi dan reverse osmosis (NF/RO). Biofilm ini jika berkembang akan menjadi biofouling dan merugikan karena akan menghambat proses pemurnian air oleh membran NF/RO, sehingga menurunkan tingkat produksi air minum sekaligus menurunkan kualitasnya. Dengan pemanfaatan teknologi OCT ini, deteksi awal bisa dilakukan sehingga proses pembersihan modul membran bisa dilakukan secara tepat waktu dan tepat sasaran.

Aplikasi non-medis OCT ini masih sangat baru di dunia. Penelitian Ketua Program Studi Magister Keteknikan Pertanian ini bersaing dengan penelitian yang dilakukan para peneliti di Singapura, Finlandia dan Belanda. Hasil penelitian ini telah diterbitkan di jurnal Water Research, sebuah jurnal yang menurut penilaian Thomson Reuters Journal Citation Reports 2015, memiliki nilaiimpact factor sebesar 5.528. OCT News, sebuah portal yang mendedikasikan khusus untuk penerapan OCT juga mempublikasikan hasil penelitian ini, berikut link beritanya:http://bit.ly/1OQfZZK

Konferensi yang diselenggarakan Elsevier, dengan koordinator konferensi dari University of Swansea – Inggris, Nanyang Technological University – Singapura dan University of Technology Malaysia ini dihadiri ratusan peserta dari sekitar 44 negara. Di akhir konferensi, Yusuf terpilih menjadi peserta yang berhak mengunjungi instalasi desalinasi Tuaspring di Singapura. Instalasi desalinasi Tuaspring baru dimulai operasinya pada tahun 2013, dan merupakan instalasi desalinasi air laut terbesar se-Asia dengan kapasitas produksi sebesar 318.500 m3 air minum per hari. Dengan instalasi desalinasi sebesar ini, Singapura menyiapkan untuk menjadi negara yang terjamin ketahanan sumber daya airnya, dan mulai melepaskan ketergantungan dari Malaysia dalam menyediakan kebutuhan air minum bagi rakyatnya. Instalasi pengolahan air laut yang dijaga ketat personel keamanan bersenjata ini, memakai teknologi ultrafiltasi sebagai pra pengolahan air laut. Selain itu, memanfaatkan pula teknologi membran reverse osmosis dua tahap (yaitu tekanan tinggi dan tekanan rendah) untuk menghilangkan komponen garam dari air laut guna menghasilkan air bersih siap minum yang berkualitas tinggi. [yusuf/ai/Humas UB]

Categories: Water Tags:

Dosen TEP Jadi Pembicara Kunci di Konferensi Internasional Membran Untuk Air Bersih

August 21st, 2015 No comments

http://prasetya.ub.ac.id/berita/Dosen-TEP-Jadi-Pembicara-Kunci-di-Konferensi-Internasional-Membran-Untuk-Air-Bersih-15697-id.html

Dr. Yusuf Wibisono, STP. MSc, dosen program studi Teknik Bioproses Jurusan Teknik Pertanian Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya diundang menjadi pembicara kunci (keynote speaker. ia didaulat berbicara pada konferensi internasional “Conference of Membrane Technology for Desalination (MTFD 2014): Clean Water and Energy Efficiency” yang diselenggarakan, Rabu-Kamis (29-30/10), di Jakarta.

Pada konferensi MTFD 2014 ini, Dr. Yusuf Wibisono, STP, Msc mempresentasikan tentang pentingnya teknologi membran untuk penyediaan air minum dan pengolahan air limbah untuk industri. Dipaparkan, penggunaan teknologi membran untuk pengolahan air lebih efisien dibandingkan pengolahan secara konvensional, namun demikian tantangan terhadap penerapan teknologi membran seperti fouling masih menjadi masalah utama.

Biofouling menjadi isu pokok dalam teknologi nanofiltrasi dan reverse osmosis, dan penggunaan larutan kimia untuk pembersihan modul membran terbukti tidak efektif. Proses pembersihan modul membran menggunakan perlakuan fisik dengan optimasi teknologi aliran 2-fasa menjadi potensial untuk diterapkan.

Paparan Yusuf mendapat sambutan menarik dan apresiasi dari peserta konferensi yang berasal baik dari akademisi, peneliti maupun praktisi di dunia bisnis dan industri pengolahan air, seperti produsen membran dari Korea Selatan, CSM/Toray Chemical Korea.

Konferensi MTFD 2014 ini diselenggarakan sesuai dengan Agenda Riset Nasional (ARN) periode 2015-2019 yang telah disusun pada 6 Mei 2014. Dalam penyusunan ARN, program riset IPTEK melibatkan instansi terkait seperti Dewan Riset Nasional (DRN), pejabat terkait di lingkungan Kementerian Ristek dan BPPT. Dalam Prioritas Riset Nasional akan difokuskan pada 3 fokus penelitian yaitu Food, Energy dan Water (FEW). Khususnya untuk Water, akan ditujukan untuk melakukan riset terkait pengelolaan air bersih, ketersediaan air  dan pengendalian air. Ketersediaan air bersih ini sangat berkaitan dengan kualitas hidup suatu masyarakat, terutama masyarakat di perkotaan. [yusuf/ai]

Categories: Water Tags:

Paper Dosen UB Dipresentasikan di Hannover

August 21st, 2015 No comments

http://prasetya.ub.ac.id/berita/Paper-Dosen-UB-Dipresentasikan-di-Hannover-12459-id.html

Paper dosen Teknik Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya , Wahyunanto Agung Nugroho, M.Eng yang ditulis bersama Yusuf Wibisono, M.Sc (UB) dan Roni Nugraha, MSc (dosen IPB) disampaikan pada konferensi internasional Sharia Economics Conference 2013 di Hannover, Jerman, Sabtu (9/2). Paper tersebut yang berjudul “Autonomous Framework on Governing Water for Sustainable Food and Energy” mengulas tentang fenomena ancaman terhadap air bersih, dimana problem menyangkut kelangkaan, kebersihan dari kuman penyakit seperti kolera, keamanan terhadap kontaminan berbahaya seperti arsenik dan instabilitas sosial muncul akibat kesalahan dalam pengelolaan air. Padahal, air sebagai komponen terpenting dalam kehidupan manusia dan juga urat nadi kehidupan harus senantiasa terjaga kualitas dan akses terhadapnya. Air juga memberikan kontribusi sangat penting untuk pertanian, dimana sekitar 70% dari permintaan air bersih dimanfaatkan untuk pengelolaan pertanian. Air juga menjadi komponen penting dalam penyediaan energi, khususnya listrik, dan sebaliknya pengolahan air menjadi air bersih juga membutuhkan energi yang cukup besar. Konsep water-energy-food nexus menjadi pembahasan krusial yang dipresentasikan, dan paper tersebut merekomendasikan bahwa menempatkan air sebagai hak milik publik yang dikelola oleh negara adalah solusi yang bisa menjawab adanya ancaman terhadap ketersediaan air bersih. Konferensi internasional SEC2013 diselenggarakan oleh Kedutaan Besar Republik Indonesia untuk Republik Federasi Jerman di Berlin bekerjasama dengan Perhimpunan Intelektual Muslim Indonesia (PRIMA), dihadiri ratusan peserta dari berbagai negara. Puluhan paper dipresentasikan oleh peneliti, praktisi dan mahasiswa dari Inggris, Jerman, Italia, Belanda, Georgia, Malaysia dan Indonesia, di tempat penyelenggaraan konferensi di Leibniz Universitat Hannover, Jerman.

Categories: Energy Tags:

Dosen FTP Berbicara di Konferensi Internasional Euromembran

August 21st, 2015 No comments

http://prasetya.ub.ac.id/berita/Dosen-FTP-Berbicara-di-Konferensi-Internasional-Euromembran-11422-id.html

Dosen Jurusan Teknik Pertanian (PS Teknik Bioproses) Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya Yusuf Wibisono MSc melakukan presentasi di Konferensi Internasional Euromembran 2012 bulan lalu. Presentasi tersebut dilakukan sebagai rangkaian kunjungan ilmiahnya ke Inggris selama sembilan hari, Rabu-Kamis (19-27/9). Ia mempresentasikan papernya tentang pengaruh geometri dari spacer dalam penggunaan gelembung udara pada proses nanofiltrasi dan osmosis terbalik. Terkait dengan penggunaan gelembung udara di dalam proses membran, ketika di Universitas Oxford, ia bertemu dengan Prof. Z.F. Chui yang merupakan pakarnya. Bidang tersebut juga menjadi bidang yang diteliti Yusuf selama menempuh pendidikan doktoral di Belanda. Pada konferensi terbut, disampaikan Yusuf, 228 presentasi oral dan 550 presentasi poster dipaparkan. Diantaranya adalah membran mikrofiltrasi, ultrafiltrasi, nanofiltrasi, osmosis terbalik, osmosis maju, membran kontaktor, pembuatan dan modifikasi membrane, anorganik membran, membran karbon dan mixed matrix, hingga aplikasi teknologi membran untuk biorefinery, pemisahan gas dan uap, produksi air minum, aplikasi biomedis (ginjal buatan, biosensor, drug delivery, dialisis dll.) dan fuel cell/battery. Selama berada di Inggris, ia juga mengunjungi instalasi desalinasi yang dioperasikan oleh Thames Water di London. Instalasi ini menggunakan teknologi membran ultrafiltrasi (UF) dan osmosis terbalik (RO), dan digunakan untuk mengolah air permukaan dari Sungai Thames di London. Instalasi desalinasi Beckton ini dibangun oleh pemerintah kota London untuk menyediakan sekitar tujuh persen dari kebutuhan air minum bagi penduduk kota metropolitan London, dan digunakan sebagai cadangan untuk water security bagi London. Pada hari berikutnya Yusuf Wibisono, MSc juga mengunjungi Departemen Teknik Kimia di University of Oxford dan University of Bath, yang memiliki riset unggulan di bidang teknologi membran.[ai]

Categories: Membrane Tags:

Dosen FTP UB Mengikuti IWA di Jerman

August 21st, 2015 No comments

http://prasetya.ub.ac.id/berita/Dosen-FTP-UB-Mengikuti-IWA-di-Jerman-6094-id.html

Tanggal 3-7 Oktober 2011 Yusuf Wibisono, MSc salah satu staff pengajar Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian (FTP) Universitas Brawijaya (UB) mengikuti “6th IWA Specialist Conference on Membrane Technology for Water & Wastewater Treatment” di Eurogress Aache, Jerman. Kurang lebih 570 delegasi dari 50 negara hadir dalam konferensi internasional tersebut. Mereka terdiri dari para peneliti, perusahaan manufaktur, para ahli dalam bidang air dan membran filtrasi, serta para pengguna. Konferensi ini merupakan ajang pertemuan para membrane specialist yang merupakan bagian dari kurang lebih 10 ribu individu dan 400 perusahaan dari 130 negara yang tergabung dalam the International Water Association (IWA). Pada kesempatan ini Yusuf mempresentasikan paper yang berjudul “The effect of bubble size on the effectiveness of air/water cleaning in spiral wound membrane element”. Riset ini adalah bagian dari studi PhD di Membrane Technology Group, MESA+ Insitute of Nanotechnology, University of Twente, Belanda. Presentasi tersebut merupakan lanjutan publikasi riset setelah sebelumnya telah dipresentasikan dalam forum International Congress on Membranes and Membrane Processes (ICOM 2011) yang diselenggarakan di Amsterdam, pada tanggal 23-29 July 2011 lalu. ICOM sendiri adalah konferensi terbesar di dunia dalam bidang teknologi membran yang diadakan setiap 3 tahun sekali. ICOM 2011 di Amsterdam diikuti oleh lebih dari 1000 orang pakar di bidang teknologi dan proses membran dari seluruh dunia. Pada hari terakhir konferensi, para peserta dibawa langsung untuk mengunjungi beberapa lokasi aplikasi teknologi membran filtrasi untuk pengolahan air dan air limbah di Jerman seperti Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) plant di Nordkanal yang merupakan diantara yang terbesar di Eropa, unit Ultrafiltrasi air minum Roetgen yang terbesar di Jerman dan pusat penelitian dan pelatihan untuk sewage treatment (SIMAS). [yus/pon]

 

 

Categories: Membrane Tags:

25 Best Universities in Europe You’ll Be Interested in Studying In

November 24th, 2014 No comments

Click here: http://www.lifehack.org/articles/lifestyle/25-best-universities-europe-youll-interested-studying.html

The overall culture of your university will have a huge impact on your future success, and that’s why it is important to consider several factors while selecting a European university, such as location, tuition, majors and academics, sports, student life, college ratings, and campus housing.

We’ve compiled a list of some of the finest universities in Europe you may want to study in, but do keep in mind that getting a chance to study in these best universities alone will never guarantee success – your career achievements will depend more on determination and hard work. Here you go with a few nice suggestions. Find your best place!

1. Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain

Universidad Politécnica de Madrid

The Universidad Politecnica de Madrid is an old university with some of its centers being more than a hundred years old. The Schools of Architecture and Engineering is of great importance because it has written the history of Spanish technology for almost two centuries. They do bachelor’s, master’s and doctorate degrees in Business and Social Sciences, Engineering and Science and Technology. At any one time, they will have around 3,000 staff members and 35,000 student enrollments.

2. Universität Hamburg, Germany

Universität Hamburg

At Universitat Hamburg, it is possible to see the six faculties offering almost all the disciplines of a comprehensive university – from economics, law, and social sciences to the humanities, from the informatics (the science of information) and natural sciences to medicine. With more than 5,000 staff members and almost 38,000 student members, it’s one of the largest universities in Germany.

3. Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain

Universidad Complutense de Madrid

This public institution works under the jurisdiction of the Comunidad Autonoma de Madrid, and is recognized as one of world’s oldest universities, and probably the most prestigious in Spain. The main campus is located in Moncloa area, whereas some of University Colleges are in downtown area. This is a university that does bachelor degrees in Business & Social Sciences, Arts & Humanities, Medicine & Health, Engineering and Science & technology. It is a very big University with over 45,000 students enrolled at any one time and a lot of staff to teach and care for them.

4. University of Oxford, United Kingdom

University of Oxford

Originally started offering its services in 1096, University of Oxford is now the oldest English-speaking university in the world with more than 22,000 students in total, including 9,850 graduate students and 11.772 undergraduates. The figures show that most of the undergraduates attending Oxford are from state schools. This university does bachelor’s, master’s and doctorate degrees in Business and Social Sciences, Arts and Humanities, Language and Cultural, Medicine and Health, Engineering and Science and technology. They have over 5,000 staff members. The University has already won Queen’s Anniversary Prizes for Higher Education for as many as nine times, which is more than any other university now.

5. University of Glasgow, United Kingdom

University of Glasgow

The University of Glasgow is among the oldest seats of learning in the UK, and is currently the 4th oldest university in the entire English-speaking world. It’s one of top 10 earners for research in the UK and is a proud member of the elite Russell Group. They maintain a research-led approach and offer students the opportunities to improve their employability, study abroad, explore a variety of social activities, and take part in work placements as well. The university offers certificate diplomas, bachelor degrees, and master’s degrees in Business and Social Sciences, Arts and Humanities, Language and Cultural, Medicine and Health, Engineering and Science and technology. This is a university that does doctorate degrees in Business and Social Sciences, Arts and Humanities, Medicine and Health, Engineering and Science and technology.

6. Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Germany

Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin

Originally founded in 1810, it now enjoys the title “Mother of all Modern Universities”. It has a great reputation in offering students an all-round humanist education. It was the first of its type, but then the concept spread in the world, leading to the introduction of several universities of the same type. This is a university that does bachelor’s, master’s and doctorate degrees in Arts and Humanities, Business and Social Sciences, Medicine and Health, Language and Cultural, and Science and Technology. They only employ a maximum of 200 staff members but have had as many as 35,000 students.

7. Universiteit Twente, Netherlands

Universiteit_Twente

This Dutch university was founded in 1961 and originally started working as a university of technology with an aim to increase the number of academic engineers. It’s currently the only university in the Netherlands with its own campus. They have more than 3,300 scientists and professionals working with each other on cutting-edge research and innovations. The enterprising university has now collaborated with Kennispark Twentee and offers bachelor degrees in Arts and Humanities, Business and Social Sciences, Medicine and Health, Engineering and Science and Technology. They only take on around 7,000 students every year.

8. Università degli Studi di Bologna, Italy

Università degli Studi di Bologna

Regarded as the Western world’s oldest university, the University of Bologna has its history intertwined with some great names of literature and science and, at the same time, serves as a point of reference and a keystone for European culture. They are offering 198 degree programs this year and offer bachelor degrees, master’s degrees and doctorate degrees in Arts and Humanities, Business and Social Sciences, Medicine and Health, Language and Cultural, Engineering and Science and Technology. They have over 5,000 staff members and over 45,000 enrolled students at any one time.

9. The London School of Economics and Political Science, United Kingdom

The London School of Economics and Political Science

Founded in 1895 with an aim to provide student with some assistance to specialize in the advanced study of the social sciences, the London School of Economics has its campus located in the heart of central London. Subjects pioneered at this institution are criminology, anthropology, social psychology, international relations, and sociology. This university does bachelor’s degrees, master’s degrees and doctorate degrees in Arts and Humanities, and Business and Social Sciences. They only have around 9000 to 10,000 students enrolled, which is why they only have around 1500 staff members maximum. LSE has already given the world more than 35 leaders and heads of state with 16 Nobel Prize winners in peace, economics, and literature.

10. Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium

Katholieke_Universiteit_Leuven

Founded in 1425, the university is now in business for more than six centuries and is currently the largest university in Belgium. This comprehensive university is also Belgium’s highest-ranked university with campuses across Brussels and Flanders. You can choose from over 70 international study programs here. This university does bachelor degrees in Business & Social Sciences, Arts & Humanities, Medicine & Health and Engineering. They can admit up to 40,000 students and have over 5,000 staff members.

11. Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich, Switzerland

ethzurich

ETH Zurich is actually a federal polytechnic that started functioning in 1855, and is today one of the finest universities in the world. The main campus is in Zurich and offers some of the finest programs in physics, mathematics, and chemistry. This university does bachelor degrees, master’s degrees and doctorate degrees in Engineering, science and technology, and a business and social science master’s and doctorate degree. They have over 5,000 workers and enroll up to 20,000 students. You don’t require formal qualifications but you have to pass the admission test to find a place in this prestigious European university.

12. Universität München, Germany

Universität München

Ludwig Maximilan is one of the oldest universities in Germany and is based in the Bavarian capital, Munich.  It is a highly respected institution having produced 34 Nobel Laureates. Ludwig Maximilian is Germany’s second largest university and overseas registration accounts for 15% of the student body. The university is very much integrated into the Munich landscape the city with various campus sites within the city limits. They do bachelor degrees, master’s degrees and doctorate degrees in Arts & Humanities, Business & Social Sciences, Medicine & Health, Language & Cultural, and Science & technology. They enroll up to 45,000 students and have around 4,000 to 4,500 staff members.

13. Freie Universität Berlin, Germany

fuberlin

Established in 1948, Freie Universitat is located in Dahlem and is always considered one of the finest universities in terms of research work in the world. The university has international liaison offices in Moscow, Cairo, Sao Paulo, New Delhi, Beijing, New York, and Brussels – this is to support its scholars and researchers in reaching out internationally. It’s a full university with as many as 15 departments offering more than 150 degree programs. This university does bachelor’s, master’s and doctorate degrees in Business and Social Sciences, Arts and Humanities, Language and Cultural, Medicine and Health, Science and technology. They have around 2,500 staff and 30,000 students.

14. Universität Freiburg, Germany

Philologische Bibliothek der Freien Universitдt Berlin

Colloquially called Uni Freiburg, it was established with an aim to provide students and teachers with a platform to learn, teach, and research without any political influence. Currently, the university works with more than 600 international scientists and scholars. This university does bachelor’s, master’s and doctorate degrees in Business and Social Sciences, Arts and Humanities, Language and Cultural, Medicine and Health, Engineering and Science and technology. At any one time, they have 20,000 people enrolled and over 5,000 staff members. Non-native students will first have to complete a language course in German.

15. The University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom

The University of Edinburgh

Established in 1582 by a Royal Charter grant, it is playing host to philosophers, scientists, and politicians for over 400 years now. An interesting fact is that you can find almost two-thirds of the world’s nationalities receiving education from this university at the same time. They have 42% of students from Scotland, with 30 percent of students from the rest of UK, and 10% of students from European Union – and, 18% of its students represent the rest of the world. This university does bachelor degrees in Business and Social Sciences, Arts and Humanities, Language and Cultural, Medicine and Health and Engineering. They have up to 25,000 people enrolled at one time and up to 3000 academic staff. Famous former students including Katherine Grainger, Chris Hoy, Gordon Brown, Ian Rankin, J.K. Rowling, Charles Darwin, and Sir Arthur Conan Doyle.

16. École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Switzerland

epfl

This publicly funded research university specializes in the sciences, architecture, and engineering fields. You can take it more as a cosmopolitan university where you can meet students from over 120 countries. There are more than 350 laboratories in this university to support research work, which is one of the reasons why they have 75 priority patents filed in 2012 with 110 invention disclosures. The university does bachelor’s, master’s and doctorate degrees in Engineering and Science and technology. They do few courses so only enroll up to 8,000 students, and often have around 3,000 staff members.

17. University College London, United Kingdom

University College London

Strategically located in the heart of London, UCL is known for offering impressive research facilities with the most recent research developments, discoveries, and ideas included in their programs. The British Museum and the British Library is also on UCL’s doorstep, giving students an inspiration to learn and research. It’s the first university to admit students of any class, race, or religion. This university does bachelor’s, master’s and doctorate degrees in Business and Social Sciences, Arts and Humanities, Language and Cultural, Medicine and Health and Engineering. They hire over 5,000 staff and have space for up to 25,000 students.

18. Technische Universität Berlin, Germany

Berlin_Technische_Universitaet

Located in the Charlottenburg district, the university has played a big role in turning Berlin as one of leading industrial cities in the world. They train students in technology and natural sciences by giving them access to impressive facilities – they have a modern science library on campus with several workstations and meeting rooms. This university does certificate diplomas, associate degrees, bachelor’s, master’s and doctorate degrees in Arts and Humanities and Business and Social Sciences. This university does certificate diplomas, associate degrees and bachelor degrees in Engineering and a science and Technology bachelor’s degree. They have around 25,000 people enroll at any one time and over 5,000 staff.

19. Universitetet i Oslo, Norway

Universitetet_i_Oslo

Founded in 1811, UiO is a state-funded university and is the oldest institution in Norway. They do certificate diplomas, associate degrees, bachelor’s, master’s and doctorate degrees in Business and Social Sciences, Arts and Humanities, Language and Cultural, Medicine and Health, Engineering and Science and technology. This multi-disciplinary research university offer 49 master’s courses in English, but you cannot find any English-taught bachelor’s degrees. Master’s programs they have are of two years in length. They have slightly smaller classes but still admit over 40,000 students. They also have over 5,000 staff members. As many as five scientists from the university have received Nobel prizes with one of them receiving the Nobel Peace Prize.

20. Universität Wien, Austria

Universität Wien

Established in 1365, the University of Vienna holds the status of being the oldest university in any German-speaking country in the world. It is also among the largest universities in Central Europe, and is the largest research and teaching university in Austria. With campuses in more than 60 locations, they have several restaurants, a library, and a couple bookshops on campus. They are a technology University and they are massive, which means you can take most courses with them–but they change regularly. They admit over 45,000 students and have over 5,000 staff members.

21. Imperial College London, United Kingdom

Imperial College London

Imperial College London started offering its services in 1907, and celebrated its 100th year of academic excellence in 2007 and became an independent entity – it was previously a part of the University of London. It’s one of the most prestigious universities in the UK and is known for its research quality with research income around £429 million for 2012–13. Imperial researchers have been associated with the development of holography, the discovery of penicillin, and the foundations of fiber optics. There are eight campuses in total around London and they offer bachelor degrees in Medicine and Health, Engineering, and Science and technology. Compared to the other colleges on this list it is small, but it can still hold up to 15,000 students, and they have a large staff compliment of over 4,000 members.

22. Universitat de Barcelona, Spain

Universitat de Barcelona

The University of Barcelona was established in 1450 in Naples, but was forced to change location in 1717, but it eventually came back to Barcelona in 1842, and today it has six locations in Barcelona, the second largest city in Spain. The university offers free Spanish and Catalan courses with bachelor’s, master’s and doctorate degrees in Arts and Humanities, Business and Social Sciences, Medicine and Health, Language and Cultural, Engineering and Science and technology. They have a very large establishment that holds over 45,000 students and 5,000 staff members.

23. Moscow State University, Russia

Lomonosov Moscow State University

The university was founded in 1755 and is considered one of the oldest institutions in Russia. They have over 10 research centers with four museums to provide students with practical assistance with their research work. The university claims to have the tallest educational building anywhere in the world, and in this building, they offer the UNESCO International Demography courses with many others.

They offer bachelor’s degrees in Arts and Humanities, Business and Social Sciences, Medicine and Health, Language and Cultural, Engineering and Science and technology. They will take as many as 30,000 students and may have up to 4,500 staff members at any one time.

24. Kungliga Tekniska högskolan, Sweden

Kungliga Tekniska högskolan

The largest and oldest technical university in Sweden, KTH has its emphasis on educating students in fields of applied and practical science. They have their academic strengths in molecular bio-sciences, e-sciences, IT, and transport research. They do bachelor’s, master’s and doctorate degrees in Engineering and Science and technology. They have over 2,000 members of staff during term time and have 15,000 enrolled students. The university has more foreign students as compared to other universities in this part of the world.

25. University of Cambridge, United Kingdom

University of Cambridge

Established in 1209, the university always manages to be among the world’s top-ranking universities. Small group tutorials with one of the most senior members of the university, and supervisions are some of the unique benefits of studying at Cambridge. This university does bachelor’s, master’s and doctorate degrees in Business and Social Sciences, Arts and Humanities, Language and Cultural, Medicine and Health, Engineering and Science and technology. They can have as many as 2,999 staff and up to 24,999 people enrolled at one time. The university has already produced as many as 89 Nobel Prize winners and currently has one of the highest levels of graduate employment in the United Kingdom.

Categories: Uncategorized Tags:

Theory of porous media

March 9th, 2010 No comments

In the mid-19th century, the theory of porous media were unknown, it was a long vacuum since the development of volume fractions by Woltman in 1794. However, the fundamental discoveries were found by Delesse, Fick and Darcy. Delesse develop the concept of surface fraction in 1848, Fick studied the problem of diffusion through membrane in 1855, and then Darcy in 1856 investigated the permeability of water running through sand as a basic study in multiphase continuum [1].

The Darcy equation actually was derived from the Navier-Stokes equation by assuming stationary, creeping, incompressible flow through porous medium. Since the Darcy’s equation becomes invalid for liquid for high velocity, or gases for very low or very high velocities, the corrections was build by Brinkmann. Brinkman’s filtration equation is usually used to describe the low-Reynolds-number flow in porous media in situations where velocity gradients are non-negligible [2].

References:

  1. R. de Boer, Theory of porous media: Highlights in the historical development and current state, Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg, 2000.
  2. F. J. Valdes-Parada, J. A. Ochoa-Tapia, and J. Alavarez-Ramirez, On the effective viscosity for the Darcy-Brinkmann equation, Physica A, 2007, 385, 69-79.
Categories: Mathematics Tags:

Navier-Stokes equations

March 9th, 2010 No comments

The viscous fluids theory is marked by the Navier-Stokes equations, that’s named after Claude-Louis Navier and George Gabriel Stokes, applying Newton’s idea written in his Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica in which describing the motion of mass point and Euler’s equations in his Mechanica in which formulated the axioms of continuum mechanics, that is: the balance of mass, the balance of momentum, the balance of moment of momentum, and the cut principle. The historical development of Navier-Stokes equations was based on the Newton’s hypothesis that notices that the motion of fluid past other bodies is held back by friction. Navier introduces both types of friction into the equations of motions, for the material points inside as well as on the boundary in his Memoir sur les lois du movement des fluids. This work was continued by Poisson, De Saint-Venant, and finally by Stokes [1].

Stokes briefly explained his theory of fluid motion in various initials and boundary conditions in Transactions of the Cambridge Philosophical Society and Cambridge Mathematical Journal, and describe in On the steady motion of incompressible fluids in 1842. He also wrote about flow in cylindrical coordinate in On the motion of a piston and of the air in a cylinder in 1843 [2]. The development of this equation was built more than 150 years, however a fundamental problem is to decide whether such smooth, physically reasonable solutions exist for the Navier-Stokes equations. It is make the Navier-Stokes equations is one of seven unsolved mathematical problems in this millennium [3].

References:

  1. R. de Boer, Theory of porous media: Highlights in the historical development and current state, Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg, 2000.
  2. G. G. Stokes, Mathematical and physical papers, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1880.
  3. K. J. Devlin, The millennium problems: The seven greatest unsolved mathematical puzzles of our time, Basic Books, 2002.
Categories: Mathematics Tags: ,

Inorganic membrane

March 2nd, 2010 No comments

The membrane separation process can be packaged in one of four common integrated arrangements that called membrane modules: plate and frame, spiral wound, hollow fiber, capillary and tubular [1]. Both plate and frame and spiral wound modules, the flat sheet membrane is used. In the case of plate and frame modules, the membrane sheets are simply attached frames which are stacked together in such a fashion that a feed flow channel is formed between the frames. Plate and frame modules suffer from the fact that the packing density, or the amount of membrane area which can be packed into a given volume, is quite low and the manufacturing costs tend to be high. Spiral wound elements neatly address both these problems. In this modules, two membrane sheets are placed back to back separated by a permeate spacer and sealed with glue on three sides. Then, the remaining side is connected to a porous permeate tube which runs through the centre of the completed module. Finally, a feed spacer is placed adjacent to each active membrane surface and the membrane sheet is rolled around the permeate tube to create a cylindrical module. The feed spacers create feed channels by insuring that the rolled up membrane do not contact each other while the permeate spacers provide a spiral path for the permeate to reach the central tube [2].

The other common used membrane module is the tubular membrane. The membrane belonging to this group all have a tubular shape (high ratio of length to diameter). The length is ranging from one to three meter and the diameter of the membrane is ranging from half a millimeter to two centimeter. Tubular membranes with a diameter below than 0.5 mm are called hollow fiber membranes, ones with the diameter ranging from 0.5 to 5 mm are called capillary membranes, while membrane with a diameter larger than 5 mm a called tubular membrane. Tubular membranes are made by casting a membrane onto porous supporting tubes. These supporting tubes are manufactured from fiber glass, ceramics, carbon, porous plastics, stainless steel or paper and must be strong enough to withstand the feed pressures [3].

The advantages of inorganic membranes compares with organic membranes have been recognized i.e.: thermal and pH resistances, generally can withstand organic solvents, chlorine and other corrosive chemicals (see Figure 1.3). Most of inorganic membrane have multi-layered structure and consist of the separating layer and the underlying support layer(s). The available filtration area per unit per volume of support varies from 300 to 2,000 m2/m3. Each layer contains different pore size and porosity. The support, made of alumina, zirconia, titania, silica, spinel, aluminosilicate, cordierite or carbon, typically has a pore diameter of about 1 to 20 mm and a porosity of 30 to 60%. Any additional intermediate support layers have progressively smaller pore size than the underlayer of support. The intermediate support layers are typically 20-60 mm in thickness and 30-40% in porosity. The selective membrane material varies from alumina, zirconia, glass, titania, cordierite, mullite, carbon to such metals as stainless steel, palladium and silver. The overall membrane element shape comes in different types: sheet, single tube, hollow fiber and multi-channel monolith. A monolithic multi-channel honeycomb shape provides more filtration area per unit volume than either a sheet or a single tube [4].

References:

  1. R. Rautenbach and R. Albrecht, Membrane Processes, John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., Chichester, 1989, 459 pp.
  2. J. G. Pharoah, Fluid dynamics and mass transport in rotating channels with application to centrifugal membrane separation, PhD Dissertation, University of Victoria, 2002.
  3. J. Q. J. C. Verbeck, Application of air in membrane filtration, PhD Dissertation, Technische Universiteit Delft, 2005.
  4. H. P. Hsieh, Inorganic membranes for separation and reaction, Membrane Science and Technology Series 3, Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, 1996, 591 pp.
Categories: Membrane Tags:

Basic principle of membrane filtration

March 2nd, 2010 No comments

Filtration is convective discriminating mass transport of liquid mixtures or gaseous dispersions (aerosols) through porous barriers, mass transport ideally being confined to the void space of the barriers. Membrane filtration, accordingly, is pressure driven barrier separation of aqueous solutions, loosely grouped into a number of process variants with reference to the size brackets of the solutes handled:  nanofiltration (NF) 0.01−0.001 μm (<10nm), ultrafiltration (UF) 0.2−0.005 μm (5−200nm) and microfiltration (MF) 10−0.1 μm (>100nm) [1]. The artificial membrane as a barrier differs to a wide variety, like polymer, ceramic, metal and liquid based materials, microporous and dense membrane based structure characteristics, or symmetric and anisotropic refers to the distribution of the pores. Membrane filtration is the surface or screening removal that differs from depth filtration [2]. Filtration operations are performed in one of two modes: tangential flow filtration (TFF) or normal flow filtration (NFF), with the latter commonly called cross-flow filtration and dead-end filtration. Viscous feed suspensions or ones that have high particulate concentrations are typically processed by cross-flow filtration to reduce the accumulation of retained material at the membrane surface, while dead-end filtration tends to be used for more dilute suspensions or smaller batch sizes [3].

References:

  1. K. W. Böddeker, Liquid separations with membranes, an introduction to barrier interference. Spriger-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2008, 146 pp.
  2. M. Cheryan, Ultrafiltration Handbook, Technomic Publishing Company, Inc., Pennsylvania, 1986.
  3. M. A. Chandler, Fouling mechanisms during depth and membrane filtration of yeast cell suspensions, PhD Thesis, The Pennsylvania State University, 2006.
Categories: Membrane Tags: