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Renewable energy

The world community today faces many problems, from economical instability to biodiversity extinction, from governance crisis to natural disasters. Addressing these problems calls out for a huge amount of research to be conducted to rescue human life. Scientists have to work by identifying the problems, developing future scenarios and evaluating management options.

Some researchers and policy makers prioritized several world’s biggest problems especially which ones relatively non-economic and political related problems were the unsafe water and sanitation, rapid global warming, and the limitation of known petroleum reserves. However, air pollution and climate change are major threats to living species health and also political stability. Energy insecurity and increasing prices of conventional energy sources are also greatest tendency to the fragility of politic and economic.

Air pollution and climate change problems are caused primarily by exhaust from solid, liquid, and gas combustion during energy production and use. Then, such problems can be addressed only with large-scale changes to energy sector, include how to secure undisrupted energy demand from world population, especially with the fossil-fuels production which close to peak and that peak will be followed by rapid decline. The proposed fuel and electric power sources were solar photovoltaic (PV), concentrated solar power (CSP), wind turbines, geothermal power plants, hydroelectric power plants, wave devices, tidal turbines, nuclear power plants, coal power plants fitted with carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology, and ethanol/gasoline and biodiesel as biofuels [1]. Other options like algae, butanol, hydrogen combustion, and solar hot water heaters.

The prospects for biofuels have improved tremendously over the last 2 years driven foremost by concerns for energy security and climate change and the high oil prices in combination with decreasing production costs. Global biofuel production has increased by 70% over the last 2 years reaching 1.1 mmbls/d in 2007, accounting for 1.3% of global liquids supply. The USA, Brazil and Europe account for the bulk of global biofuel production. While ethanol is the dominating biofuel product in Brazil and the USA, biodiesel is the main product within Europe accounting for more than 80% of total biofuel production [2].

References:

  1. M. Z. Jacobson, Review of solutions to global warming, air pollution, and energy security, Energy Environ. Sci., 2009, 2, 148-173.
  2. J. Kjarstad and F. Johnsson, Resources and future supply of oil, Energy Policy, 2009, 37, 441–464.
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